Clustering effects may be created by other means than using clusters with physical meeting points. Clusters are based on identified local stakeholders who have common usefulness for business, growth, etc. Clusters are recognized as locations which facilitate interaction and exchange. The physical meeting creates opportunities.

In comparison, some areas (research areas, industrial branches etc) may be strong but have not grown to a sufficient pool of stakeholders to create value chains, or interaction and exchange which create business to business.

Clustering is the activity of valuable parameters which start to create links, bonds, exchange. Clustering effects should result in outcomes which create strong interaction that resembles the trust and interaction that appears from physical meetings.

An aim of the Glocal Innovator Support Model (GISMODEL) is to support the innovator for impact of innovations that  balances on support at glocal (global and local) considerations. The clustering from an innovators point is a part of the entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP). 

Facilitation of clustering mechanisms are most relevent for long term growth, such as sustainability, smart specialization (RIS3), smart specialization 2.0, Agenda 2030 aims, etc.

Clustering effects may be created by different means. Common for this is the early innovation stage and innovator who benefits from support from initial stage to societal impact by products or services.